One-step Green Synthesis of Highly Luminescent Carbon Dots from Beef and Application as Selective and Sensitive Nanosensor for Ketotifen Fumarate Detection in Human Serum and Urine Samples

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


Green luminescent water soluble carbon dots (CDs) were synthesized by the simple one-step hydrothermal method of: beef, shrimp, beef liver and oyster, without using surface passivating and oxidizing agent or inorganic salts. The application of high fluorescent beef CDs without surface modification was described as a green, simple, and inexpensive method for sensitive and selective determination of ketotifen fumarate (KTF) based on fluorescent quenching. The beef CDs exhibit exceptional advantages including: significant fluorescent quantum yield (13.75), and admissible chemical stability. The quantum yields of CDs from beef, oyster, beef liver, and shrimp were calculated as: 13.75, 17.29, 20.59, and 17.45, respectively. Among the prepared CDs, only the fluorescence of CDs prepared from beef was significantly reduced by KTF, indicating the high selectivity of beef CDs toward KTF. The linear range of determination of KTF by this nanosensor was 〖7×10〗^(-7)-〖5×10〗^(-6) (mol/lit) with a detection limit of 0.3 (μM). The proposed method was then applied to the highly sensitive and selective determination of KTF in human serum and urine samples with acceptable results.