Rapid Palladium Preconcentration and Spectrophotometric Determination in Water and Soil Samples

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Dairy Science and Technology, College of Food Sciences, Al-Qasim Green University, Iraq

2 College of Medical Technology, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq

3 General Directorate of Education in Dewania, Ministry of Education, Iraq


Cloud Point Extraction (CPE) is an economic, rapid, and environmentally friendly method. It was performed by preconcentration samples (water and soil) that contained palladium. An ion-pair association complex was formed when the chromogenic reagent 2-(4-hydroxy phenyl azo)-4-benzene naphthol (HPBN) reacted with palladium in HCl media. It was then extracted into a surfactant (Triton X-114) rich phase. After diluting the cloud point layer with acidic methanol, the concentration of enriched samples was determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effects of Triton X-114 and HCl concentra-tions, heating time, temperature, centrifuge rate, incubation duration, and interferences on cloud point extraction were analyzed and improved. The short extraction time (8 minutes) is an advantage of this method. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) are low (0.10 and 0.30 μg L-1, respectively). The enrichment fac-tor (EF) and preconcentration factor (PF) are calculated to be 40 and 100, respectively. The precision for the approach was determined to be (RSD 1.10%, n = 6). For collect-ed samples, the FAAS was used to assess the accuracy of the modified preconcentra-tion technique. The method can be used to detect palladium in natural samples, with relative recovery values ranging from 93 to 109% for various concentrations, demon-strating its accuracy.