Review of Developments of Modified Carbon-Based Electrodes on Electrochemical Sensors for Water Environment Monitoring

Document Type : Review


Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia


Environmental components, especially water, are important for human life and other organism and the sustainability of the earth. Recently, environmental pollution has been one of the most crucial problems globally. Therefore, analytical methods are needed to monitor the water environment pollutant. Electrochemical techniques have been developed for pollutant determination in water environments due to low cost, simplified operations, shorter time for analysis, increased sensitivity, and capabilities for simultaneous detection of multiple substances. One of the most common electrochemical sensors is based on carbon electrodes. Carbon electrodes have many advantages, such as low background current, mechanical strength, inhibition of water electrolysis, and ease to modification. In this review, we described the development of carbon electrodes in electrochemical sensors to determine water pollutants including 4-nitrophenol, tetracycline, diazinon, and heavy metal. This review mentioned the various modified sensors that increase the performance of the sensor including sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility. We expect that this review can be used as the basis for developing further modified sensors with excellent performance.