Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Natural Dye from Calendula Arvensis Petals by the Response Surface Method

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Laboratory of Biotechnology, Environment, Agri-Food and Health (LBEAS), Faculty of Science, USMBA Fez, P. O. Box : 1796 (Atlas), Fez 30000, Morocco

2 Laboratory of Engineering, Modeling and Systems Analysis (LIMAS), Faculty of Science, USMBA Fez, P. O. Box: 1796 (Atlas), Fez 30000, Morocco


The purpose of this study was to use a hydro-ethanolic solvent to extract natural color extract as effectively as possible from Calendula arvensis flower petals. The effects of ethanol volume, extraction time, and solvent/material ratio on the efficacy of Calendula arvensis flower petal extractives by ultrasonic extraction at 50 kHz and room temperature were investigated. Total phenol content (TPC) and color power were used to quantitatively describe each extract. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the extraction procedure was optimized, and extraction effectiveness was increased (TPC, color power). Different ethanol-to-water ratios were employed in the experiments. Through a variance analysis, the effectiveness of the extraction procedure was established (ANOVA). The maximum extraction efficiency of the hydro-ethanolic extraction (28.21%), the polyphenol content (779.11 mg GAE/g extract), and the color power (42) were quantified using a 30 min treatment time, a 60:40 ethanol:water ratio, and a 15 mL/g solvent/material ratio. The results obtained show that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a successful technique for extracting natural color from Calendula arvensis.